The introduction of 3D printers for business or personal use has sparked an interest in this modern technology, but what about 3D scanning? 3D scanning technology can help collect precise data on physical objects. The cost of entry-level quality scanners on the market can reach tens of thousands of dollars.
One of the exciting aspects of this technology is its potential applications for design-oriented organisations. It bridges the gap between our physical world and digital design by making it simple to manipulate or duplicate the objects we create with our hands online. If you are a designer, this technology can be invaluable.
Beginning with 3D scanning are numerous digital engineering solutions that enable the future of product creation, manufacturing, quality control, and production. 3D scanners combine modern technology and specialist software to produce a game-changing instrument. For those still employing mechanical tools and conventional coordinate measuring machine (CMM) technologies, 3D scanners provide an accessible entry point to modern manufacturing and engineering techniques. Continue reading to learn more about how 3D scanners function and what the technology is capable of so that you can immediately reap its benefits.
This article will delve into 3D scanning technology, explaining how it operates so that you can understand how this technology might benefit your organisation.
What is 3D Scanning Technology?
3D scanning is the act of studying an object in the real world in order to collect all the data necessary to digitally reconstruct its form and look. Thanks to this technique, the object can become a 3D model, which can serve as a foundation for the upcoming 3D project. Still, it can also be utilised to reconstruct, analyse, or simulate concepts.
Various devices and techniques exist for 3D scanning items. Unbeknownst to you, there are other ways to generate a digital duplicate of a physical object. We will examine in greater depth how each of them operates. There are other 3D scanning techniques, but we will concentrate on three that can be considered the most prominent: laser 3D scanning, photogrammetry, and structured light scanning. The 3D scanning approach will be determined based on your project or surroundings.
How Does 3D Scanning Work?
A 3D scanner operates by capturing data from the surface of a physical object in order to accurately characterise its shape in a digital, three-dimensional format. Contrary to CMM measurement data, high-quality 3D scan data has applications beyond inspection and dimensional analysis. The generated measurement data enables faster, more readily available digital analysis and inspection using a visible, comprehensive reporting mechanism. 3D scanners can also be used for reverse engineering, assuring remote components’ fit, form, and function, validating CAD models of 3D printed parts and opening the door to more digital tactics.
- Laser Triangulation
Laser triangulation is the most exact method for scanning small things. It generates laser lines onto an object’s surface, which are detected by angled cameras during the calibration process. The equipment then converts this data into quantitative and digital representations. Ideal for sectors whose products require accuracy and perfection.
- Structured Light
Structured light uses an LED array that beams light onto an item; this method is not as precise as laser triangulation, but it can detect the presence of colour on objects. They can make accurate representations of physical objects but are less suited for creating intricate and intricately engineered objects. The problem with this technology is that it cannot scan glass or black objects. Another disadvantage is the device’s dependence on computer connectivity.
Photogrammetry is one of the first 3D scanning technologies that has existed for the longest time. The process requires capturing several photographs of an object in order to generate its 3D representation. Numerous 2D viewpoints assist the technology in determining the terrain of the 3D item, from which the 3D interpretation is derived.
- Contact Based Scanning
Contact-based scanning, as its name suggests, is the method of scanning objects by contacting them at many spots with a fine point. The program then compiles this information to generate a representation of the object. Among the major disadvantages of this procedure is that the object must remain motionless throughout the operation; otherwise, the results will be erroneous.
How to Use 3D Scanning?
Using 3D scanning to build a 3D model for 3D printing can be a quicker and simpler method if you only need to duplicate an existing thing. Once you have your 3D model, you can modify it; it might serve as an excellent starting point for your project.
What applications do these 3D scans serve? The medical industry is making excellent use of this scanning technology. It is also assisting in the creation of custom-made prostheses for patients using 3D scans. In the dental industry, the use of 3D scans is already widespread, for example, to monitor, simulate alternatives, or even produce dental products such as braces, implants, and dentures. The use of 3D scanning and printing is ideal for avoiding all of the problems of molds and the entire process of manufacturing them.
3D scanning has several advantages. It is even a solution for stock data that we can utilise in the future. Could 3D scans of Notre-Dame, the partially destroyed French cathedral on April 15, 2019, be used to restore it? 3D scanning has numerous applications.
How Does a 3D Scanner Work with Structured Light?
A 3D scanner operates utilising structured light and triangulation methods. The sensor projects a particular shifting fringe pattern across the component’s surface, and two cameras capture the surface geometry based on the distortion of the pattern, thereby producing 3D coordinate dimensions and measurements. The 3D scanner manages and processes millions of X, Y, and Z data points into a “point cloud” to create an object’s digital twin. Since the space between the cameras, sensor, and angles is known, the triangulation method is utilised to get accurate and trustworthy measurement data.
This picture illustrates how structured light 3D scanners employ the triangulation principle. A light source is positioned between two cameras that are tilted towards one another, producing a heterodyne “fringe” pattern onto the surface of the physical item. During data gathering, the stripes’ size and orientation fluctuate. The sensing cameras examine the contrast along the edge of the stripes and assign those pixels with X, Y, and Z coordinates, swiftly gathering exact, precise scan data with minimal texture. The software then converts the data points into visual data that constitute an exact digital duplicate of the real component.
How Does a 3D Scanner Work with LED Technology?
Traditional structured light 3D scanners utilise white light. Today, numerous light colours are available, but blue light 3D scanners that employ LED technology are the most common. Blue light captures data from darker and shinier surfaces and filters out the ambient light found in laboratories and manufacturing facilities. The outcome is a clean, precise, and noise-free data set.
How Does a 3D Scanner Work for Quality 4.0?
Quality 4.0 is a concept that integrates new industrial technologies to accelerate future quality procedures. Adopting 3D scanning lays the foundation for these modernised dimensional inspection approaches while overcoming the limitations of conventional quality and manufacturing processes. For instance, 3D scanners acquire data that enables the virtual deconstruction of an object’s bits and pieces without physically destroying anything. Using this information, quality professionals are also able to identify issue areas, correct parts, and validate and test things prior to actual manufacturing. The high precision of the measurement data enables the rapid and accurate generation of dimensional computations such as CAD comparison, sectional analysis, GD&T, trend/SPC, and others.
How Does a 3D Scanner Work for Digital Twin Strategies?
In Quality 4.0, 3D scanners serve as a means to access digital twin concepts. The data collected by a 3D scanner becomes the digital twin of the material thing; consequently, it is important to use an accurate 3D scanner. 3D scanners are helpful for a variety of digital twin applications, such as digital assembly. In this technology, engineers integrate 3D scan data from numerous faraway parts in preparation for software assembly. The digital assembly process enables you to evaluate the fit of such components prior to mass-producing and shipping the actual components.
How Does a 3D Scanner Work for Reverse Engineering?
3D scanners utilise scan data from a physical thing to generate a 3D CAD model for product upgrades and archives. Typically, legacy parts are depicted in two-dimensional drawings instead of three-dimensional CAD models. It is possible to replicate old components using exact three-dimensional data and precise 3D scanners. The 3D scanner scans the part, and the resulting data is utilised as a reference to build a 3D CAD model that can be used to create new molds, tools, or parts with the same dimensional characteristics as the original or to engineer product improvements. Good quality 3D scan data with a watertight mesh can also be utilised to 3D print a copy of the original, which increases the efficiency of the reverse engineering procedure.
How Does a 3D Scanner Work for Adaptive machining?
Airfoils, blocks, molds, and dies are components of aerospace and power-generating turbine engines that are becoming increasingly popular for adaptive machining. In adaptive machining, precise structured light 3D scanners digitise the surface geometry of an item and feed the data back to the CNC machine to process the updated milling tool paths, enabling real-time alterations without the need to move the CNC machine. This method is utilised on both new and repaired parts to reduce operating costs and cycle times while boosting precision.