HomeMechanical EngineeringWhat is a Crossflow...

What is a Crossflow Turbine? Components and Application

A crossflow turbine has multiple splits that are inconsistently and longitudinally arranged around the flow cylinder and glued to the inlet and outlet edges of the water to create effective flow. The tip of the blade closes like an old water wheel, giving the turbine a “hamster cage.”

Crossflow turbines have two independent nozzles; their angle is set at 45 degrees, the water is positioned at the best angle on the blades. The moving force generates the potential energy of the water. The flow of water controls through an adjustment mechanism during rotation to increase or decrease the transmission of the nozzle while controlling the power. These turbines have lower efficiency than the Kaplan turbines.

Working of Crossflow Turbine

In the cross-flow turbine, the water enters in the form of a flat plate rather than a circular jet, such as a Pelton turbine. The water plate is guided to the turbine blades by the inlet drive vanes and ensures that the water hits the blades at the right angle for maximum efficiency.

Water passes through the blades and causes torque on these blades. After reaching the blade, the veil of water passes through the turbine, and when it comes out, it hits the blade again and creates more torque.

The first hit of water on the blade creates more force than the second hit. Since this type of turbine uses a jet of water to generate impulses in the turbine, the cross-flow turbine is a type of impulse turbine, similar to the Pelton turbine.

Components of Crossflow Turbine

The crossflow turbine has the following major parts:

1) Turbine Casing

The casing of the crossflow turbine is made of structural steel. It is stable and durable. It has resistant to shock and cold. If the abrasive content of the water is high (such as sand, silt) or if the actual composition of the corrosive water (such as seawater, acidic water) is considered, all the water-related components of the turbine are made of stainless steel.

2) Guide vanes

In split-type cross-flow turbines, the working water is driven by two force-balanced contour vanes. The jet blade splits the water, balances it, and allows it to enter the channel slowly, regardless of the width of the unit. Two rotating guides blades are mounted exactly in the turbine casing and can be used as a means to close the turbine if the height is low. This eliminates the need for a shut-off valve between the pressure line and the turbine. Both pickups are equipped with independent sliding arms connected to automatic or manual control. The driving vanes are mounted on heavy-duty bearings without any maintenance. If the turbine is closed, it can be closed by gravity and increase the weight of the boom end.

3) Runner

The runner is the most important part of the turbine. It features polished and ironed steel blades made with proven techniques. Based on real hydraulic data, structural steel or stainless steel is used for its structure.

Check out: What Is a Reciprocating Compressor? Pros & Cons

The two ends of the blades are mounted on a rotating plate and rotated according to a special procedure in the central disc of the plate. Depending on the size, the runner has a maximum of 37 blades. Straight, slanted blades create only a small axial force, so power bearings with complex installation and lubrication are not required. Multiple discs support the widest lane blades. Before finally installing the turbine, carefully balance the impeller and check for cracks.

4) Bearings

Crossflow turbines are equipped with self-aligning bearings, which have many advantages, including low roller resistance and easy maintenance. Bearing casing design prevents water from entering the bearing and lubricating contact with working water. This basic quality is recorded in the design of the cross-flow turbine casing. In addition, the rotor is centered in the turbine casing by the bearing. The creative technical solution produces maintenance-free sealing elements. Apart from the annual grease change, the bearings require no maintenance. Furthermore, the technical solution used makes it possible to easily replace the impeller without having to move the entire turbine into position.

3) Draft tube

A Crossflow turbine is a non-flow turbine, like Pelton turtles. But in the case of medium or low door leaves, you can use an exhaust pipe to use the whole door. However, the water column in the suction pipe must be checked. This is ensured by the adjustment of the air valve, which affects the suction pressure in the turbine casing. In this way, it is possible to use turbines with a suction height of 1 to 3 meters without any risk of creating holes.

Advantages of Crossflow Turbines

  1. They have good regulations.
  2. They have a low cost.
  3. These turbines don’t require high maintenance.
  4. These turbines have the capability to remove small debris from the runner.

Disadvantages of the Crossflow Turbine

  1. A crossflow turbine has lower efficiency than other turbines such as Kaplan turbine and Pelton Wheel turbine.
  2. It has self-starting issues.

Most Popular

More from Author

What is a Vacuum Pump? Types and Applications

A vacuum pump is a device that extracts gas molecules from...

How does a Pelton Wheel Turbine work?

Pelton wheel turbine is a kind of tangential flow impulse turbine,...

What is a Rotary Compressor And How Does It Work?

A rotary compressor is a mechanical device used to continuously flow...

What is a Jet Pump? Types and Applications

A jet pump also called an ejector pump, is a device...

Read Now

What is Submersible Pump? Types and Applications

The submersible pump (or electric submersible pump (ESP)) is a fully sealed device with a motor and connected to a pump housing. The entire structure is immersed in the pumped liquid. It is a famous type of the centrifugal pump. The submersible sump pump is a pump...

What is a Solar Water Pump, And How Does It Works?

A solar water pump is a pump that uses solar energy to operate. Compared to conventional water pumps, solar pumps are durable, easy to install, require minimal maintenance, and are very inexpensive. The useful life of the solar pumps is up to 20 years. But sometimes, it...

What is Reaction Turbine? Types, Pros and Cons

A reaction turbine is a type of turbine that can generate the torque based on pressure or mass of a liquid. The reaction action of a turbine force is described by Newton's third law of motion (the action of the force and the reaction force are equal...

What Is a Reciprocating Compressor? Pros & Cons

A compressor replaces a volumetric machine that uses a piston to compress the gas and deliver it at high pressure. Reciprocating compressor have a piston that moves downward, reducing the pressure in the cylinder and creating a vacuum. This pressure difference forces the intake chamber valve to...

What is a Reciprocating Pump? Working and Types

A reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump in which a particular volume of liquid is collected in a closed volume and discharged using pressure for the required application. The reciprocating works on the principle of pushing the fluid through the piston, which rotates in a closed...

Different Types of Positive Displacement Pumps? 

The positive displacement pump (PD) transfers the fluid with the aid of repeatedly trapping a set quantity and robotically agitating it inside the device. The pumping movement is cyclical and can be pushed with the help of using pistons, diaphragms, or blades.  Types of Positive Displacement Pump There are...

What is a Centrifugal Pump? Components and Uses

A centrifugal pump is a mechanical device that uses centrifugal force acting on a liquid to convert mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. It is the most popular and widely used type of pump for bottom-to-top liquid transfer, finding applications in agriculture, municipal services, industry, power plants, petroleum,...

What is a Kaplan Turbine? Working and Components

A Kaplan turbine is a propeller turbine that is used in hydroelectric power plants. It is the most common and famous type of reaction turbine. Water enters and leaves the Kaplan turbine through the rotating shaft, which is known as axial flow. The impeller blades of these...

What is a Septic System? Types and Components

A septic system is an underground storage system used for household drainage that cannot enter the city drain system. The septic tanks are available in different compositions and sizes but serve the same purpose. The company that provides septic tank pumps must withhold wastewater and perform basic...