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What is a Septic System? Types and Components

A septic system is an underground storage system used for household drainage that cannot enter the city drain system. The septic tanks are available in different compositions and sizes but serve the same purpose. The company that provides septic tank pumps must withhold wastewater and perform basic sanitation and treatment until the tank needs to be emptied. 

The septic systems have multiple types, but the most famous type is the aerobic septic system. In this article, I am going to explain the different types of septic systems.

Types of Septic System

The septic system has the following major types:

Conventional System A conventional effluent septic system has a drain field, septic tank pump, and septic tank. Traditional septic tank systems are typically installed for single-family homes or small businesses.

Gravel/stone gutters are a design that has been around for decades. Its name refers to the construction of a drainage area. With this construction, wastewater from septic tanks is channelled into shallow underground stone or gravel trenches. Then place geotextile or similar material in the trench to keep sand, soil, and other debris away from the clean stone.

The wastewater filters through the stone and is then cleaned by microorganisms when it arrives in the soil under the stone/ gravel drain field.

The total area of ​​the stone/gravel system is relatively large and may not be appropriate for all housing areas or situations. 

1. Chamber System

No stone drainage fields are using for more than 30 years in many states. It has become a conservative technology that is replacing the stone drain field system. The gravel-less system can design with recycled media and offer a sufficient saving in a carbon footprint.

An example of a gravel more minor system is a chamber septic system. This system provides an alternative structure to the gravel system. The main benefit of this system is its improved design. In other areas with a high water table, this trivial area, the systematic amount of water moving forward is variable (e.g., a summer house or a seasonal trip), a rare area with a stone, or other technical factors.

It’s also beneficial in areas with high water tables and fluctuating inflow from septic tanks (e.g., seasonal villas and hotels), gravel scarcity area, or other technology-friendly areas such as plastic chambers area readily available. 

2. Drip Distribution System

An intravenous distribution system is a sewage distribution system used in many types of drainage areas. The main advantage of the drip distribution system is that the drip branch is inserted 6 to 12 inches above the ground, eliminating the need for a large mound. The disadvantage of the IV distribution system is that it requires many water tanks behind the septic tank to accommodate the regular supply of wastewater to the IV absorption area. The system requires additional components such as power supply, extra costs, and additional maintenance.

3. Aerobic Septic System

The aerobic septic system uses many of the same processes as municipal sewage treatment plants but on a minor scale. This system is also known as the aerobic treatment unit (ATU). This system injects oxygen into the processing tank. The extra O2 increases the natural bacterial performance in the system and ensures the additional processing of the nutrients contained in the wastewater. Some aerobic systems also have pre-treatment and final treatment tanks containing dosing chambers to further decrease pathogens’ concentration.

4. Mound System

This is an option for flat ground, high groundwater, or flat rocky areas. The sand mound has a drain field channel. The sewage from the septic tank moves into the pump room, pumped into the mound in a certain amount. The wastewater is discharged into the sewer system, filtered with sand, and distributed in the ground for treatment. 

Components of Septic System:

A septic system has the following major components:

1. Pipeline

 The pipelines in your home connect to the pipelines with your septic tank, where the sewage begins the filtering process. This is the reason to take care of the pipes in addition to the septic tank system!

2. Septic tanks

 Because septic tanks come in various sizes, shapes, and capacities, households and businesses are equipped with tanks to manage the property’s water use and waste. This also includes the first filter system to promote healthy wastewater treatment.

3. Septic tank pump

The septic tank pump uses to pump the wastewater from the dosing chamber into the drain field.

4. Drainage Area

 The fourth major component of the septic tank system design is the septic tank drainage area. Here wastewater seeps into the groundwater through permeable pipes and gravel. This important step is to prepare the treated water for the final stage. 

Advantages of the septic tank system

  • The septic tank system bypasses the sewer system, significantly reducing the possibility of leaks. It also uses a natural filtration system to minimize contamination. Low price
  • Generally, little maintenance is required after 3-4 months.
  • Long-lasting
  • Easy to repair

Disadvantages of the septic tank system

  • Various substances can clog septic tank pipes. Do not flush these substances down the drain or flush them down the toilet.
  • Another downside to septic tanks is that they need to be pumped every 2 to 5 years, and each owner’s pump costs anywhere from $ 250 to $ 450.
  • These systems have a high cost for pumping and cleaning
  • These systems have high repairing costs

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