A solar water pump is a pump that uses solar energy to operate. Compared to conventional water pumps, solar pumps are durable, easy to install, require minimal maintenance, and are very inexpensive. The useful life of the solar pumps is up to 20 years. But sometimes, it is necessary to clean the solar panels to make them work. These pumps can’t deliver large amount of water like electric pumps. Therefore, these pumps are less efficient than Electric Pump.
Solar Pump Block Diagram
The solar water pump block diagram has solar panels, a water pump, a motor, and a controller. This pump is basically an electric pump that uses the electricity received from the solar panels to run. These panels store energy from solar energy. The electric motor works in alternating current or direct current. The controller used in the system can adjust the output power and speed.
How Does Solar Pump Work?
When a solar energy project emits sunlight on a photovoltaic panel, the solar panel converts the light into electrical energy with the help of silicon wafers attached to the photovoltaic panel. Then, solar energy delivers to the electric motor to run the pumping cable system. By turning the fixed shaft towards the pump, the pump begins to draw water from the soil and supply it to the farm.
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Type of solar pump
Solar water pumps are divided into four types:
- Submersible solar water pump
- Grounded solar water pump
- DC water pump
- AC water pump.
1) Submersible Solar Pumps
These pumps can lift water up to 650 feet and are suitable for a large well. As long as the well water is more than 20 feet high, these pumps can directly shut down the batteries, solar panels or, in some cases, shut them down. Usually, when it is sunny, the water is pumped during the day, and the water is stored in the tank for use if needed. Water storage is only recommended in good weather conditions because if the weather is unfavorable, the water will not be pumped. These pumps are mainly used in places where water can pump deeper, and there are no open wells. The maximum recommended pumping depth is 50 meters. For more information on automatic control of solar pumps for irrigation, refer to the link.
2) Surface Solar Pumps
These pumps use in swimming pools, shallow wells, storage tanks, or rivers. If the depth of the water supply to the well is 20 feet or less than 20 feet above the surface. In general, these pumps cannot pump very high water from deep wells; they can pump water at 200 feet or more. These are appropriate for lifting and pumping water from the deepest point of 20m.
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3) DC solar pump
The motor used in this pump runs on direct current, so there is no need for an inverter or a battery.
4) AC solar pump
The motor used in this pump uses alternating current, which means that the direct current generated by the panel is generated with the help of an alternating current inverter. This conversion can cause a loss of power in production and use.
Solar Pump Advantages
- The installation of solar water pump is flexible and suitable for various applications.
- Allows people to manage drinking water supply, animal irrigation, irrigation, and other housing.
- In general, water consumption is higher in the summer. Today, photovoltaic panels can produce maximum power capable of pumping more water into the tank.
- Thanks to the ease of using a water pump equipped with a photovoltaic system, solar technology is compatible and requires minimal protection.
Disadvantages of solar pumps
- It has an expensive initial installation.
- The solar panel’s output varies according to the weather conditions.
- You need a storage tank and a battery.
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Solar Water Pump Applications
The solar pump has the following major applications:
1) Supply Water for your Home
For household water supply, solar pumps are used in private homes, cabins, villages, medical clinics, etc. The water pump can be powered through its photovoltaic field or through the main system that powers the lights and appliances. You can use a special storage tank or a second pump called a booster pump that provides the required water pressure. When there isn’t enough sunlight, rainwater harvesting can complement pumping from the sun. When designing a system, it makes sense to maintain an overview and consider all resources.
2) Water for Livestock
Drivers in the United States, Australia, and South Africa are keen to use solar pumps. Its water resources are scattered on vast grasslands, where few power lines and transportation and maintenance costs are high. Some farmers use solar pumps to distribute the water over other miles (over 5 kilometers) of pipelines. Others use portable systems and move them from one water source to another.
3) To Water Plants
Solar pumps are used on small farms, gardens, vineyards, and orchards. The cheapest way is to power the pump from the photovoltaic field directly (without battery), tank store water and then disperse it by gravity. When pressed, the battery stabilizes the voltage for uniform current and distribution and can eliminate the need for storage tanks.